One main problem when fast-charging Lithium-Ion batteries is Lithium-plating. There, the Lithium-Ions are not intercalated into the anode but are deposited on its surface. This leads not only to safety issues, but also reduces the capacity of the battery by reducing the amount of cyclable Lithium. While in experimental half cells the onset of Lithium-plating can be well correlated with the Anode potential crossing a value of 0 V [1,2], in commercial cells the Anode potential cannot be measured. Thus, extensive aging experiments are required to determine the optimal charging current profiles for a given battery cell, which charge the cell fast but do not cause Lithium-plating. As these profiles vary strongly with temperature and State-of-Charge (SOC), the effort for doing such an investigation is extremely high and not practicable.
In the tutorial we guide through the fundamentals of Lithium-plating and compare approaches to address fast-charging in practice. Furthermore, we present an approach, where the anode potential of a given commercial cell is predicted by a physical battery model. The model contains sub-models for both anode and cathode and covers all relevant loss processes. It is shown to be valid in the whole operational range of the cell and thus delivers a valid estimate for the anode potential. Using this model, we will derive and discuss practically feasible fast-charging strategies.